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金屬表面處理系列知識-----星大盛機械

發布時間:  2022/3/8
金屬表面處理系列知識-----星大(da)盛(sheng)機械13726609612

電鍍(du)/電泳/鋅鍍(du)/發黑(hei)


電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)鍍(du)層(ceng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)或其(qi)(qi)(qi)他不(bu)(bu)溶性(xing)(xing)(xing)材料(liao)做(zuo)陽(yang)極,待鍍(du)的(de)(de)工(gong)件做(zuo)陰(yin)極,鍍(du)層(ceng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)陽(yang)離(li)子(zi)在(zai)待鍍(du)工(gong)件表面(mian)(mian)被還(huan)原(yuan)形成鍍(du)層(ceng)。為排(pai)除其(qi)(qi)(qi)它陽(yang)離(li)子(zi)的(de)(de)干擾,且(qie)使鍍(du)層(ceng)均(jun)勻(yun)、牢固,需用(yong)含鍍(du)層(ceng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)陽(yang)離(li)子(zi)的(de)(de)溶液(ye)做(zuo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)液(ye),以保(bao)持鍍(du)層(ceng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)陽(yang)離(li)子(zi)的(de)(de)濃度(du)不(bu)(bu)變。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)是(shi)在(zai)基材上(shang)(shang)鍍(du)上(shang)(shang)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)鍍(du)層(ceng),改(gai)變基材表面(mian)(mian)性(xing)(xing)(xing)質或尺寸。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)能增(zeng)強金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)抗(kang)腐蝕(shi)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(鍍(du)層(ceng)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)多(duo)采用(yong)耐(nai)腐蝕(shi)的(de)(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu))、增(zeng)加硬(ying)度(du)、防(fang)止磨耗、提(ti)高導電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、潤滑(hua)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、耐(nai)熱性(xing)(xing)(xing)、和表面(mian)(mian)美觀。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)是(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)涂料(liao)在(zai)陰(yin)陽(yang)兩極,施加于(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓作用(yong)下,帶電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷之涂料(liao)離(li)子(zi)移動到陰(yin)極,并(bing)與(yu)陰(yin)極表面(mian)(mian)所產生之堿性(xing)(xing)(xing)作用(yong)形成不(bu)(bu)溶解(jie)物,沉積于(yu)工(gong)件表面(mian)(mian)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)表面(mian)(mian)處理(li)工(gong)藝(yi)的(de)(de)特(te)點:電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)漆膜具有涂層(ceng)豐滿、均(jun)勻(yun)、平整、光滑(hua)的(de)(de)優(you)點,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)漆膜的(de)(de)硬(ying)度(du)、附(fu)著力、耐(nai)腐、沖擊性(xing)(xing)(xing)能、滲透性(xing)(xing)(xing)能明(ming)顯優(you)于(yu)其(qi)(qi)(qi)它涂裝工(gong)藝(yi)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)與(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)泳(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)區別電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)鍍(du)就(jiu)是(shi)利用(yong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)原(yuan)理(li)在(zai)某(mou)些金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)表面(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)鍍(du)上(shang)(shang)一薄層(ceng)其(qi)(qi)(qi)它金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)(shu)或合金(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)過程。
電泳:溶液中(zhong)帶電粒子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(離子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi))在(zai)電場(chang)中(zhong)移動的(de)現(xian)象。溶液中(zhong)帶電粒子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(離子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi))在(zai)電場(chang)中(zhong)移動的(de)現(xian)象。利(li)用(yong)帶電粒子(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)在(zai)電場(chang)中(zhong)移動速度不同而達到分離的(de)技術稱為電泳技術。電泳又名(ming)——電著(著),泳漆,電沉積。鍍鋅(xin)鍍鋅(xin)是指(zhi)在(zai)金(jin)屬、合金(jin)或者其它材料(liao)的(de)表(biao)面鍍一層(ceng)鋅(xin)以起美觀、防(fang)銹等作(zuo)用(yong)的(de)表(biao)面處理技術。現(xian)在(zai)主要采(cai)用(yong)的(de)方法(fa)是熱鍍鋅(xin)。
發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)鋼(gang)制件的(de)(de)(de)(de)表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),也有被稱之為(wei)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)。其原(yuan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)是(shi)將鋼(gang)鐵制品表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)迅速氧化(hua)(hua)(hua),使之形成致密(mi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)膜保護層(ceng),提高(gao)鋼(gang)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)防銹(xiu)能(neng)力(li)(li)。發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)現(xian)在(zai)(zai)常(chang)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法有傳統的(de)(de)(de)(de)堿(jian)性(xing)加溫(wen)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)和(he)出(chu)現(xian)較(jiao)晚(wan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)常(chang)溫(wen)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)兩種(zhong)。但常(chang)溫(wen)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)工(gong)藝對于(yu)低(di)碳鋼(gang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)果不(bu)太好。A3鋼(gang)用(yong)(yong)堿(jian)性(xing)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)好一(yi)些。在(zai)(zai)高(gao)溫(wen)下(約550℃)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)四(si)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)三鐵呈(cheng)天藍(lan)色(se)(se)(se),故稱發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。在(zai)(zai)低(di)溫(wen)下(約350℃)形成的(de)(de)(de)(de)四(si)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)三鐵呈(cheng)暗黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)色(se)(se)(se),故稱發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。在(zai)(zai)兵(bing)器制造中,常(chang)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li);在(zai)(zai)工(gong)業生產中,常(chang)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。采用(yong)(yong)堿(jian)性(xing)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)法或酸(suan)(suan)性(xing)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)法;使金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)形成一(yi)層(ceng)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)膜,以防止金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)被腐(fu)蝕,此處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)過程稱為(wei)“發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)”。黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei)色(se)(se)(se)金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)經“發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)”處(chu)(chu)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)后所形成的(de)(de)(de)(de)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)膜,其外(wai)層(ceng)主要(yao)是(shi)四(si)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)三鐵,內層(ceng)為(wei)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)亞鐵。發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)藍(lan)(發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)黑(hei)(hei)(hei)(hei))的(de)(de)(de)(de)操作流程:工(gong)件裝(zhuang)夾(jia)→去油(you)→清洗→酸(suan)(suan)洗→清洗→氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)→清洗→皂(zao)化(hua)(hua)(hua)→熱水(shui)煮洗→檢查。所謂皂(zao)化(hua)(hua)(hua),是(shi)用(yong)(yong)肥皂(zao)水(shui)溶液在(zai)(zai)一(yi)定溫(wen)度下浸泡工(gong)件。目的(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)形成一(yi)層(ceng)硬(ying)脂酸(suan)(suan)鐵薄(bo)膜,以提高(gao)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)抗腐(fu)蝕能(neng)力(li)(li)。金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)著色(se)(se)(se)金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)著色(se)(se)(se),顧名思義就是(shi)給金屬表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)“涂”上顏色(se)(se)(se),改變其單一(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)、冰冷(leng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)金屬色(se)(se)(se)澤(ze),代(dai)之以五顏六色(se)(se)(se),滿足(zu)不(bu)同行業的(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)同需(xu)求。給金屬著色(se)(se)(se)后一(yi)般都增加了防腐(fu)能(neng)力(li)(li),有的(de)(de)(de)(de)還增加了抗磨(mo)能(neng)力(li)(li)。但表(biao)面(mian)(mian)(mian)彩色(se)(se)(se)技術主要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)應用(yong)(yong)還在(zai)(zai)裝(zhuang)飾(shi)領域,即(ji)用(yong)(yong)來美化(hua)(hua)(hua)生活,美化(hua)(hua)(hua)社會。

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