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星大盛帶你看鋼管--焊接鋼管基本知識概況

發布時間:  2022/3/8
星大盛帶你看鋼(gang)管--焊(han)接鋼(gang)管基本(ben)知識概況
(佛山市星大盛機械有(you)限公司)

一、焊接鋼管的種(zhong)類:
1.埋弧(hu)焊管:
⑴、螺旋(xuan)埋弧焊管;⑵、直縫埋弧焊管。

二、EW高頻直縫焊管二、焊管的成型方(fang)式;

1.工藝流(liu)程(cheng):開卷——矯(jiao)直——剪切(qie)對焊(han)——銑(xian)邊(bian)——成型——內焊(han)——外(wai)焊(han)——切(qie)斷內外(wai)焊(han)縫修磨(mo)——探傷——平頭——水壓試驗(yan)——超聲波探傷——成品檢驗(yan)
2.按成型(xing)角擺(bai)動(dong)位置分:前(qian)擺(bai)機組(zu),前(qian)橋擺(bai)動(dong)調整成型(xing)角,又稱短機組(zu),這種機組(zu)投資少,但因是(shi)斷續生(sheng)產(chan)(chan),質量不夠穩定(ding)。飛焊小車機組(zu),可(ke)連續生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)質量較(jiao)穩定(ding)。
3.按卷(juan)曲方(fang)向(xiang)分(fen),上(shang)卷(juan)成型,下卷(juan)成型,目前大(da)多數都是上(shang)卷(juan)方(fang)式(shi)。
4.按管徑(jing)控(kong)制方式分(fen),有外控(kong)式成型器。內支撐成型器
5.預精焊(han)機(ji)(ji)組,焊(han)接質量(liang)優于飛(fei)焊(han)小車機(ji)(ji)組,焊(han)縫預焊(han)后(hou)在精焊(han)時不發生錯動;內焊(han)點位(wei)置不受焊(han)墊輥的影響,沒有(you)馬鞍形(xing),大管可用3絲(si)焊(han)。
6.帶(dai)鋼遞(di)送位置分(fen):有邊緣對大(da)橋中心(xin);帶(dai)鋼遞(di)送中心(xin)對大(da)橋中心(xin)。目(mu)前(qian)大(da)部分(fen)已改(gai)為帶(dai)鋼中心(xin)對大(da)橋中心(xin)。

三(san)、直縫(feng)(feng)埋弧焊管,焊縫(feng)(feng)短、在靜態情況下焊接(jie)質量(liang)好于螺旋管。3.1、UOE成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)(xing)3.2、JCOE成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)(xing),適于厚壁生(sheng)產(chan)3.3、HMI成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)(xing)(芯棒滾壓方(fang)式按C-C-O方(fang)式成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)(xing))

四、EW直縫高(gao)頻焊管焊接(jie)方(fang)式有感應焊和接(jie)觸(chu)焊

五、成(cheng)(cheng)型的控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)內(nei)容:5.1成(cheng)(cheng)型角計算公(gong)式:COSa=B/πD中(zhong)πD中(zhong)=鋼(gang)管外徑減一個壁(bi)厚;B=鋼(gang)板的工作寬度(du)。成(cheng)(cheng)型最(zui)佳角度(du)45~65°,設計范圍40~76°超出(chu)最(zui)佳范圍就(jiu)易出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)缺(que)陷。5.2成(cheng)(cheng)型的控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)要點:管徑:成(cheng)(cheng)型角不(bu)準,成(cheng)(cheng)型框(kuang)架數(shu)據不(bu)準,2#輥(gun)壓下(xia)不(bu)合適(shi),帶鋼(gang)位(wei)置跑偏等(deng)都會對觀景(jing)管徑產(chan)生影響;錯(cuo)邊(bian)(bian):以(yi)遞送邊(bian)(bian)為基(ji)準判別上(shang)下(xia)錯(cuo)邊(bian)(bian);厥嘴:邊(bian)(bian)緣變形(xing)不(bu)好;彈復量(liang):整體(ti)變形(xing)不(bu)好易出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)彈復量(liang)偏大(da)5.3很多(duo)焊(han)接(jie)(jie)缺(que)陷都與成(cheng)(cheng)型有關:如成(cheng)(cheng)型變形(xing)不(bu)足,造成(cheng)(cheng)焊(han)接(jie)(jie)應力大(da),易產(chan)生裂(lie)紋(wen);焊(han)縫的縱向裂(lie)紋(wen)基(ji)本上(shang)都是成(cheng)(cheng)型引(yin)起的;微橋擺動(dong)過(guo)猛,焊(han)墊輥(gun)支(zhi)的過(guo)高都會使焊(han)縫撕(si)裂(lie)。成(cheng)(cheng)型縫松氧化(hua)鐵,焊(han)劑(ji)夾(jia)在成(cheng)(cheng)型縫內(nei)就(jiu)會出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)夾(jia)雜、氣孔等(deng)缺(que)陷。銑邊(bian)(bian)質量(liang)的好壞(huai)也直接(jie)(jie)影響焊(han)接(jie)(jie)質量(liang),兩(liang)邊(bian)(bian)的坡(po)口不(bu)均勻就(jiu)會導致焊(han)偏,鈍邊(bian)(bian)不(bu)均勻就(jiu)會出(chu)現(xian)(xian)(xian)未焊(han)透等(deng)缺(que)陷。

六、埋(mai)(mai)(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)的焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接方式(shi)6.1、單面(mian)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(現已不采用(yong)(yong)(yong))6.2、雙(shuang)面(mian)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)6.3、內單絲(si)(si)(si)(si),外雙(shuang)絲(si)(si)(si)(si)(多用(yong)(yong)(yong)于小(xiao)管(guan),薄壁管(guan))6.4、內外全(quan)雙(shuang)絲(si)(si)(si)(si)。6.5、螺(luo)旋管(guan)預精焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)可用(yong)(yong)(yong)到3絲(si)(si)(si)(si)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)。6.6、直縫(feng)埋(mai)(mai)(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)可用(yong)(yong)(yong)3絲(si)(si)(si)(si)4絲(si)(si)(si)(si)最多5絲(si)(si)(si)(si)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)。6.7、氣體保(bao)護(hu)(hu)與(yu)埋(mai)(mai)(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)混合焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han),用(yong)(yong)(yong)氣體保(bao)護(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)預焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han),然后用(yong)(yong)(yong)埋(mai)(mai)(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)進行精焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han),直縫(feng)埋(mai)(mai)(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)和螺(luo)旋預精焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)都采用(yong)(yong)(yong)這種方式(shi)。6.8、一般排列是1#絲(si)(si)(si)(si)直流(liu)電源(yuan),用(yong)(yong)(yong)反接極性,以保(bao)證熔(rong)深,以后的焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)絲(si)(si)(si)(si)全(quan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)交流(liu)電源(yuan),用(yong)(yong)(yong)以填充焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)道(dao)金屬(shu)保(bao)證焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接表(biao)面(mian)質量。

七(qi)、保護(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)的(de)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)的(de)種(zhong)類7.1、埋弧(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)——利用(yong)(yong)電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)作(zuo)為熱源的(de)熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han),由填充(chong)裸金(jin)屬(shu)制成的(de)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)絲(si)(si)插入焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)劑層下(xia),與(yu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)金(jin)屬(shu)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu),電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)熱量熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)絲(si)(si)、焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)劑和(he)母材金(jin)屬(shu)形成焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)縫。7.2、氣(qi)(qi)體(ti)保護(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)——以(yi)電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)為熱源進行(xing)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)時。同(tong)時從噴槍的(de)噴嘴中(zhong)連續噴出保護(hu)(hu)(hu)氣(qi)(qi)體(ti),把空(kong)氣(qi)(qi)與(yu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)區域中(zhong)的(de)熔(rong)(rong)化(hua)金(jin)屬(shu)隔開來,以(yi)保護(hu)(hu)(hu)電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)和(he)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)熔(rong)(rong)池中(zhong)的(de)液態(tai)金(jin)屬(shu)不受大(da)氣(qi)(qi)中(zhong)的(de)氧、氮、氫(qing)等(deng)污染,以(yi)達(da)到提高焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)質量的(de)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)。7.3、鎢極(ji)氬弧(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)——以(yi)高熔(rong)(rong)點(dian)的(de)金(jin)屬(shu)鎢棒作(zuo)為焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)接(jie)時產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)電(dian)(dian)極(ji)的(de)一個電(dian)(dian)極(ji)并在氬氣(qi)(qi)保護(hu)(hu)(hu)下(xia)的(de)電(dian)(dian)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)7.4、藥芯焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)絲(si)(si)氣(qi)(qi)體(ti)保護(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)——焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)絲(si)(si)內部裝有焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)劑混合(he)物,是一種(zhong)氣(qi)(qi)渣聯合(he)保護(hu)(hu)(hu)的(de)弧(hu)(hu)(hu)焊(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)方法。

八(ba)、焊接(jie)質量的控(kong)制
1、原材(cai)料(liao)控(kong)制:鋼(gang)(gang)板化學(xue)成分,力學(xue)性(xing)(xing)(xing)能不合格,會(hui)(hui)直接(jie)影(ying)響(xiang)焊(han)縫質(zhi)量(liang)(liang)。碳(tan)當量(liang)(liang)控(kong)制:碳(tan)當量(liang)(liang)是將鋼(gang)(gang)鐵(tie)中合金元素折合成碳(tan)的(de)含(han)量(liang)(liang),碳(tan)素鋼(gang)(gang)中決定強度和可焊(han)性(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)要因素是含(han)碳(tan)量(liang)(liang);合金鋼(gang)(gang)(主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)要是低(di)合金鋼(gang)(gang))除碳(tan)以外各種合金元素對鋼(gang)(gang)材(cai)的(de)強度與可焊(han)性(xing)(xing)(xing)起著(zhu)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)要作用。當碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)大于(yu)0.12%時(shi),用國際焊(han)接(jie)學(xue)會(hui)(hui)推薦的(de)碳(tan)當量(liang)(liang)公(gong)式:CEIIW=C+MN/6+(Cr+mo+v)/5+(Ni+CU)/15當碳(tan)含(han)量(liang)(liang)小(xiao)于(yu)等于(yu)0.12%時(shi)用日本推薦的(de)碳(tan)當量(liang)(liang)公(gong)式CEpcm=C+Si/30+Mn/20+CU/20+Ni/60+Cr/20+MO/15+V/10+5B
2、焊(han)(han)(han)絲(si),焊(han)(han)(han)劑(ji)也對焊(han)(han)(han)接質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)有一定影響。目前(qian)管線管焊(han)(han)(han)接都用寶雞(ji)廠生產的SJ101G焊(han)(han)(han)劑(ji),HO8C焊(han)(han)(han)絲(si)用于低合(he)金高強焊(han)(han)(han)接到目前(qian)質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)還沒(mei)有發(fa)現問題(ti),但鋼級相同(tong)不同(tong)廠家生產的卷板(ban)質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)有一定的差(cha)異,直(zhi)接影響到鋼管的質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)。在使用過程中,焊(han)(han)(han)絲(si)不能受潮(chao),受污染,焊(han)(han)(han)劑(ji)要(yao)烘(hong)干,定期要(yao)更換和補(bu)充(chong)新焊(han)(han)(han)劑(ji),若循環時(shi)間長(chang),焊(han)(han)(han)劑(ji)中就會混入氧化(hua)鐵等雜物,或顆(ke)粒度(du)變(bian)小都會影響焊(han)(han)(han)接質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)。
3、工藝(yi)參數(shu)控(kong)制(zhi):螺(luo)旋埋(mai)弧焊(han)(han)(han)(han)內外焊(han)(han)(han)(han)均采用下坡焊(han)(han)(han)(han),焊(han)(han)(han)(han)速、電壓(ya)、電流(liu)、焊(han)(han)(han)(han)頭的偏心(xin)距、頃角,雙絲焊(han)(han)(han)(han)的間(jian)距都對焊(han)(han)(han)(han)接質量(liang)有影(ying)響。焊(han)(han)(han)(han)劑的堆(dui)高、流(liu) 向、顆粒度也會對焊(han)(han)(han)(han)接質量(liang)有影(ying)響。

九、包辛(xin)格效(xiao)應鋼(gang)材(cai)在(zai)加(jia)載產生預變性后,若繼續(xu)同向(xiang)加(jia)載,則屈服(fu)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)度(du)增加(jia),而反(fan)向(xiang)加(jia)載時屈服(fu)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)度(du)降低,螺旋(xuan)焊(han)管(guan)成(cheng)型后會使(shi)管(guan)體的屈服(fu)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)度(du)降低20~50MPa,直(zhi)縫埋(mai)弧焊(han)管(guan)子卷曲后,屈服(fu)強(qiang)(qiang)(qiang)度(du)不降低反(fan)而會升(sheng)高;X60X65鐵(tie)(tie)素體+珠光體管(guan)線(xian)鋼(gang)制造螺旋(xuan)管(guan)時,包辛(xin)格效(xiao)應為(wei)25~40Mpa,而X70針狀鐵(tie)(tie)素體包辛(xin)格效(xiao)應僅為(wei)10Mpa。

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